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W.E.B. Du Bois is extensively identified for his civil rights activism, however many sociologists argue that he has but to obtain due recognition because the founding father of American sociology. His groundbreaking research, “The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study,” was printed in 1899 and exhaustively detailed the poor social circumstances of 1000’s of Black Philadelphians within the metropolis’s historic Seventh Ward neighborhood.

We spoke with Elijah Anderson, Sterling Professor of Sociology and African American Research at Yale College, in regards to the significance of Du Bois’ seminal research and why it’s nonetheless related for Philadelphians 125 years later.

How did the ‘Philadelphia Negro’ research come about?

A lot of Philadelphia’s elite of the day believed that the town was going to the canine, and that the rationale was the large inflow of Black individuals from the South. Susan Wharton, the spouse of Joseph Wharton – after whom the Wharton Faculty is called and then-provost on the College of Pennsylvania – invited Du Bois to come back to Philadelphia to check Philadelphia’s Black inhabitants and attempt to discover solutions to this downside.

Du Bois accepted their provide, which got here with a small stipend, and got here to Philadelphia alongside along with his new bride, Nina Gomer. They settled within the Outdated Seventh Ward in a neighborhood settlement home, situated at Sixth and Waverly streets, down the road from a well-known Black church, Mom Bethel AME. Du Bois then set about finding out the Seventh Ward, identified for its focus of the Black inhabitants. These individuals lived within the alleys and streets adjoining to the rich white individuals for whom they labored as servants.

Family portrait of W.E.B. Du Bois, his wife Nina, and their baby son Burghardt in 1898.
Household portrait of W.E.B Du Bois, his spouse, Nina, and their child son Burghardt in 1898.
W.E.B. Du Bois Papers, 1803-1999, Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries

Resulting from Du Bois’ upbringing and Harvard schooling, his bearing was that of the elite. Whereas conducting his discipline work, he at occasions wearing spats and a swimsuit and tie.

Du Bois approached his topics as an goal social scientist. He wished to grasp the situation of Philadelphia’s Black inhabitants after which present his report back to a white elite whom he believed would use his knowledge to enhance the situation of Black individuals, each inside Philadelphia and past.

Are you able to clarify his concept of the benevolent despot?

This time period is predicated on Du Bois’ authentic premise: that the inequality between the residing circumstances of Blacks and whites may very well be rectified by the rich individuals who managed the town. He regarded these leaders as despots as a result of energy they wielded, but in addition believed them to be benevolent in addition to rational. Du Bois noticed the Irish and Scottish immigrants who have been employed in sure industries. He puzzled why these firms would fail to make use of Black individuals, as nicely, and concluded that they need to merely be ignorant. In spite of everything, in his thoughts, these have been benevolent individuals in addition to wealthy and highly effective – and most significantly, they have been rational. So why would they make use of the Irish and Scots, however not the Black individuals? This was a important query for Du Bois, and one he was decided to reply by means of his research.

Book cover of 'The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study' by W.E.B. Du Bois

Elijah Anderson wrote the introduction to the 1995 and 2023 editions of ‘The Philadelphia Negro.’
University of Pennsylvania Press

Nonetheless, because the research progressed, Du Bois started to comprehend that the issue was far more sophisticated than he’d initially assumed. He realized that the so-called benevolent despots is probably not so benevolent in any case, specializing in their very own monetary pursuits. These included pitting Irish and Scottish employees in opposition to Black individuals to maintain wages low, but in addition a easy choice of white employees over Black employees.

Midway by means of the research, Du Bois pours out a soliloquy of disappointment. He declares that there’s, actually, no benevolent captain of business, as a result of if such an individual existed, he wouldn’t let these Black girls and boys fester in poverty and crime.

He writes:

“If now a benevolent despot had seen the event, he would instantly have sought to treatment the true weak point of the Negro’s place, i.e., his lack of coaching; and he would have swept away any discrimination that compelled males to help as criminals those that would possibly help themselves as workmen.

“He would have made particular effort to coach Negro boys for industrial life and given them an opportunity to compete on equal phrases with the perfect white workmen; arguing that in the long term this is able to be greatest for all involved, since by elevating the ability and way of life of the Negroes he would make them efficient workmen and rivals who would keep a good degree of wages. He would have sternly suppressed organized or covert opposition to Negro workmen.

“There was, nevertheless, no benevolent despot, no philanthropist, no far-seeing captain of business to forestall the Negro from shedding even the ability he had discovered or to encourage him by alternatives to be taught extra.”

That is additionally the place Du Bois started to see and make clear the state of affairs as an issue of racism. He doesn’t use the phrase “racism” – that phrase didn’t exist on the time – however he speaks when it comes to racial preferences and discrimination.

How are his findings related to Philadelphians immediately?

“The Philadelphia Negro” stays a strong work. It depicts the social group of the Black neighborhood, and particularly the Black class construction of Du Bois’ day. It additionally makes use of the method we all know immediately as “cohort analysis” – the concept that social circumstances affecting a gaggle are additionally impactful to the person, and that what occurs to the group is a perform of historic moments of society.

Du Bois’ descriptions of Black individuals residing in remoted communities after the tip of slavery and migrating to those cities – that’s essential, and presages the inner-city communities of immediately, lots of that are nonetheless largely Black.

Moreover, the function of European immigration in Du Bois’ day performed a important function in undermining the place of Black individuals in society. Within the context of “white over Black,” every successive wave of immigration from Europe because the finish of the Civil Warfare usually labored to undermine the place of the rising Black center class.

Du Bois pointed this out again in 1899. He noticed that employers most well-liked white immigrants from Europe over Black individuals. The benevolent despot Du Bois hoped to succeed in ignored his work, with implications for Philadelphia race relations to today.

W.E.B. Du Bois seated at desk in office at Atlanta University in 1909

W.E.B. Du Bois seated in his workplace at Atlanta College in 1909.
W.E.B. Du Bois Papers, 1803-1999, Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries

How did it inform your individual work as a sociologist?

After I was a sociology grad pupil on the College of Chicago within the Seventies, “The Philadelphia Negro” was not required studying. However later, I taught a summer season course at Northwestern College about Du Bois and, like so many younger Black students of my technology, I used to be deeply impressed by his work.

Afterwards, once I was recruited by Swarthmore School – situated 11 miles outdoors Philadelphia – I felt honored to reside within the metropolis the place Du Bois had performed his work. I typically traveled to Philadelphia to stroll by means of the neighborhoods the place he’d labored. In the end, the College of Pennsylvania – the very place that had initially recruited Du Bois to conduct his research – provided me a place. I moved to the town and commenced conducting ethnographic research. In some sense, I adopted within the footsteps of Du Bois.

In actual fact, my total physique of ethnographic work grows out of a number of the questions Du Bois raises, and the unresolved issues he uncovers. “Streetwise” focuses on the sociology of gentrification and its implications for each white and Black individuals residing in gentrifying neighborhoods. “Code of the Street” addresses the violence that happens in inner-city neighborhoods, in addition to the difficulty of policing and the abdication of police. After that, I started to take care of a number of the points that introduced completely different races collectively. “The Cosmopolitan Canopy” is an ethnographic research of Philadelphia’s Rittenhouse Sq. and the Studying Terminal Market and Middle Metropolis. Most lately, in 2021, I printed “Black in White Space,” which argues that when a Black individual enters or navigates white area, they’re burdened with a adverse presumption that they need to disprove. To the extent they do, they’re allowed in these areas. However disproving the adverse presumption isn’t any simple process.

All these books, primarily based on research that have been all performed in Philadelphia, stem from the inspiration of studying Du Bois as a graduate pupil.

View of empty street in Kensington neighborhood of North Philadelphia

Philadelphia has extra residents residing in poverty than another large metropolis within the U.S.
Spencer Platt/Getty Images

Why ought to Philadelphians learn this e book?

The e book is a seminal work, and whereas it has influenced many Black sociologists, it has not yet received the attention it deserves. Nonetheless, an rising numbers of students, each Black and white, are starting to grapple with Du Bois’ work.

Philadelphians ought to learn this e book to develop into enlightened in regards to the metropolis’s historical past and the way it pertains to the dire circumstances of the town’s impoverished inhabitants of immediately.

The Philadelphia financial system is present process a period of profound transition, from an financial system primarily based on manufacturing to at least one primarily based more and more on service and excessive know-how, together with robotics, computer systems and social media. Jobs and monetary alternatives are sent away from Philadelphia to non-metropolitan America and to underdeveloped nations all over the world. Consequently, many residents of the town have develop into dislocated economically; 22% of the city’s population is impoverished, and a majority of them are Black. Therefore, the situation of the disenfranchised underclass whom Du Bois considered the “submerged tenth” has develop into remarkably extra sophisticated and dire.

This advanced combine of things creates a great deal of crime and alienation, which feeds into the dominant narrative that our cities are falling aside – and that it’s the fault of this disenfranchised underclass, this “submerged tenth.” That is blatantly incorrect. The issues going through immediately’s poor inner-city residents stem from systemic racism and the structure of capital, not the people trapped inside that construction.

Strikingly, regardless of being written over a century in the past, “The Philadelphia Negro” anticipates not solely the situation of immediately’s poor inner-city Blacks, but in addition the unwillingness or the lack of immediately’s “benevolent despots” to rectify and even tackle the state of affairs. We see Du Bois’ “submerged tenth” in immediately’s drug sellers, drug addicts and persistently poor single teenage moms. And we see his not-so-benevolent despots in politicians who would quite blame the victims than take any steps to enhance their lot.

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